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Do you know what databases are, their elements and the types there are? Know everything about the topic

All about ⭐ DATABASES: its history, TYPES, MODELS ⭐, characteristics and most USED database programs ✅ today.

Discover everything you need to know about databases, he information storage system of the last decades: history, types, models, characteristics and most used database programs today. Join us!

In the computing world, databases play a very important role, due to their ability to store systems information and protect data.

This protection goes before security flaws and attacks, as well as in the management and distribution of information, the standardization of the language and the performance of advanced functions.

You will learn about the types, models, history and programs of databases.
You will learn about the types, models, history and programs of databases.

That is why, here we will address everything necessary about these information storage systems and how they contribute in a positive way to make our lives less complicated.

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History of the database

Do you have any idea about the history of the database? The database has its origin in the need to store and record data in a more efficient and organized way.

Previously, the only way to preserve information was through paper documents, which in addition to being a cumbersome procedure, caused great damage to our environment.

From then on, a replacement of that inefficient model is made and the databases are created.

These fulfill the function of storing and better systematizing information so that people can make inquiries without any difficulty.

For its part, the theory of data ensures that in addition to storing information there must be a data classification process, so that when making the queries, the search is much simpler.

Today, databases can be applied to all areas. For example:

We have the database management systems (SIG), which every day are more voluminous and precise

These systems employ peculiarities that make them a good alternative for data management.

The history of a database takes place to the satisfaction of the need for data management, and thanks to data managers, all of this is possible.

The managers are employed in carrying out large-scale projects such as geographic and population surveys, although they are also used in the personal sphere. Thanks to this there are different types of database throughout history that respond to certain needs and characteristics.

What is a database?

Refers to a warehouse or repository of classified and organized information, which has a system that allows queries and searches efficiently.

What are databases: Characteristics, history, models and types of databases.
What are databases: Characteristics, history, models and types of databases.

The definition arises in a symposium in California, USA in 1963. Where they affirm that said information in addition to being stored is grouped with a specific structure.

In relation to computing, it is understood that database is part of a disk storage system that offers the possibility of accessing them through programs with which the information is managed.

From the structural point of view the database has tables that contain a set of algorithms and these, in turn, have columns and rows, which classify the data by assigning each one a characteristic element that makes it easier to record.

Characteristics of a database

Some of the main characteristics of a database are:

  • Data stored logically and fiscally independent.
  • Less data redundancy.
  • Diversity of accesses for multiple users.
  • Data security and auditing.
  • Speed of information inquiries.
  • Information recovery and backup in case of failures.
  • Use of standard programming languages.

Although these database characteristics are mainly for data service, they could also be classified as protection and use of the same.

Elements of a database

The databases are made up of various basic elements, in which tables, queries, forms, reports, macros and modules are included. In this sense, elements of a database they can also be adapted to the needs of companies and users.

Elements that make up a database
Elements that make up a database

Following, the elements of a database are:

  • Boards: They are the fundamental pillar of a database and have rows and columns that store the algorithms and classify them depending on the details of the information.
  • Queries: allow searches to find information more easily.
  • Forms: They are the main interface of the program and allow you to view, manage the data, the contents of the tables and columns.
  • Reports: They are in charge of collecting the data in the tables so that users can find the important algorithms for analysis and printing.
  • Macros: manages to automate database functions.
  • Modules: they are used to keep a record of Access Basic.


They have basic components that integrate all the databases; however, depending on their use, they may have different parts. In basic systems the components of a database are as follows:

  • Storage tables.
  • Sorted and structured data queries based on categories.
  • Reports as a means of presenting data.
  • Forms to optimize the introduction of information.

Database types

There are various database types depending on its structure and models among them we have the relationships databases (MySQL, SQL Server and Oracle), non-relational (MongoDB and Redis) and other databases that they are not so traditional.

Relational bases

They are indicated for consistent and planned data. Next we will mention the relational database types:

  • MySQL: Used for data that is GPL licensed and server based. They are quite fast, light but not recommended for large data volumes.
  • PostgreSQL and Oracle: They are quite powerful databases, they can handle large amounts of data well and are used especially for intranets and quite heavy systems.
  • Access: Created by Microsoft to work exclusively with Access programs and create .mdb files with a previously designed structure.
  • Microsoft SQL Server: It is more powerful than Access and allows you to handle heavy and large data.

Non-relational bases

They are quite flexible in relation to data management and they are a good option for the drawbacks of relational models. Among them are: MongoDB and Redis or also called NO-SQL (Not Only SQL).

Non-traditional bases

They are based on graphs or nodes linked by links and usually contain cartographic information, they are ideal for e-commerce in the classification of products and user trends.

Non-traditional bases (e-commerce)
Non-traditional bases (e-commerce)

Database models

The database models They are determined depending on the structure for storing the data and the relationship between them and are involved in processes such as elimination, substitution and reading of information. Between the most used database models they find each other:

Hierarchical databases

They have a structure of nodes that are interconnected, starting from a central axis and unfolding in several nodes and thus creating an inverted tree shape where all the nodes are supported by their roots.

It is a very powerful model; Nevertheless, has flaws in relation to the independence of each node, since to access a certain node of the main branch, it is necessary to go through those that are found much earlier.

This reduces flexibility and data management since, since it is an interconnected storage, the information must be published in each node, which causes a greater volume of information.

Network database

It is quite complex to administer and manage since, unlike databases in hierarchical models, its structure does not have a single axis or central node, which gives it greater flexibility and efficiency.

Network database models
Network database models

Relational databases

It is one of the most used and allows to reduce the problems of hierarchical models and networks. Unlike these, use tables that have records similar to rows and fields that resemble columns.

This, in addition to providing better access to information, provides a more efficient and complete structuring.

Object-oriented database

It is a current model that has the characteristics of relational databases, which allows to include objects and makes the interaction simpler within the architecture of the programs. In GIS systems it offers great advantages.

Database programs

Although there are many programs to manage databasesIn their structure, they all coincide in the use of tables that store the rows and columns with the registration of the information in a categorized way. Among the most used today are:


Microsoft Access was designed by Windows to create organized databases and classified where all kinds of information can be managed. Its interface is quite simple when it comes to searching and consulting.

Microsoft Access
Microsoft Access

It is ideal for those who are not experts in databases and has basic tools that allow you to store a large amount of data in related and combined tables, which makes the organization more efficient. further can be linked with other Microsoft programs.


It is a data language program that allows you to retrieve, manage and manage information in databases relational type. It is ideal for the management and manipulation of information; however, it requires certain knowledge to be used.

SQL language program
SQL language program


It is used in relational and cross-platform databases. It is very complete as it allows store large amount of data efficiently, which is why it is used by large companies and projects.

Requires advanced knowledge to be able to manage it and its software can be used on both Windows and Mac.

Oracle Program
Oracle Program

As you can see, databases and their types have been the product of human need in wanting to speed up tasks, specially designed to simplify processes and systematize large amounts of information.

We hope you have been able to learn a little more about the history, characteristics, models, and types of database and the invitation is for you to stay tuned with our quality content and at the forefront.